h. Run an Array Job

In this step you will create a new container that generates a file with a set of different stress tests. You will then run an array job using this container image where each member task of the job array will perform a different test based on its array index.

Automation of the container build and push processes

Since you are going to be building and pushing more container images in this workshop, it’s worth simplifying and automating the container build pipeline by creating some shell scripts.

Create a directory for the scripts.

mkdir ~/environment/bin

Execute the following commands to build the script that creates a named ECR repository.

cat > ~/environment/bin/create_repo.sh << EOF
echo \${1}
aws ecr create-repository --repository-name \${1}
chmod +x ~/environment/bin/create_repo.sh

Execute the following commands to create the script that builds a container based on the Dockerfile in the local directory and pushes it to the named ECR repository.

cat > ~/environment/bin/build_container.sh << EOF
echo \${1}
export AWS_REGION=\$(curl --silent
export AWS_ACCOUNT=\$(curl -s | jq -r '.AccountId')
aws ecr get-login-password --region \${AWS_REGION} | docker login --username AWS --password-stdin \${AWS_ACCOUNT}.dkr.ecr.\${AWS_REGION}.amazonaws.com
docker build -t \${1} .
docker tag \${1}:latest \${AWS_ACCOUNT}.dkr.ecr.\${AWS_REGION}.amazonaws.com/\${1}:latest
docker push \${AWS_ACCOUNT}.dkr.ecr.\${AWS_REGION}.amazonaws.com/\${1}:latest
chmod +x ~/environment/bin/build_container.sh

A bin directory with two new scripts will now be visible in the file browser on the left side of your Cloud9 window. You can double click each of the scripts to open them a new editor to inspect their contents.

Create a new container for an array job

  1. Create a new subdirectory named array to store the configuration files for your array job.
mkdir ~/environment/array
cd ~/environment/array

You should now see a new directory named array appear in the file navigation panel on the left side of the Cloud9 IDE.

  1. Right click on the icon for this directory and select New File and name it Dockerfile.
  2. Double click on the icon of the Dockerfile to open it in a new Cloud9 editor.
  3. Copy and paste the following contents into Dockerfile:
FROM public.ecr.aws/amazonlinux/amazonlinux:2
RUN yum -y update
RUN amazon-linux-extras install epel -y
RUN yum -y install stress-ng

### Build mktests.sh
RUN echo $'#!/bin/bash\n\
rm $FILE 2>/dev/null\n\
for II in `stress-ng --cpu-method which 2>&1`\n\
    if [ $COUNT -gt  5 ]; then\n\
        echo "--cpu 1 -t 120s --times --cpu-method $II" >> $FILE\n\
    COUNT=`expr $COUNT + 1`\n\
done' >> /mktests.sh
RUN chmod 0744 /mktests.sh
RUN cat /mktests.sh

RUN echo $'#!/bin/bash\n\
STRESS_ARGS=`sed -n $((AWS_BATCH_JOB_ARRAY_INDEX + 1))p /stress-tests.txt`\n\
echo "Passing the following arguments to stress-ng: $STRESS_ARGS"\n\
/usr/bin/stress-ng $STRESS_ARGS' \n\ >> /docker-entrypoint.sh 
RUN chmod 0744 /docker-entrypoint.sh
RUN cat /docker-entrypoint.sh
ENTRYPOINT ["/docker-entrypoint.sh"]
  1. Save the file.

Note some of the changes from the last Dockerfile:

  • This version generates a script called /mktests.sh inside the container.
  • It calls this script from the docker-entrypoint.sh script when the container runs and generates a file called /stress-tests.txt inside the running container.
  • This file will be used by each array task to execute a different command by selecting the corresponding line based on its array index variable, and setting their STRESS_ARGS environment variable accordingly.
  1. Create a new repository for your job array container in Amazon ECR.
~/environment/bin/create_repo.sh stress-ng-array

Note that you are using a new name here since this container has different purpose and functionality. Note that an ECR repository has a 1:1 relationship with a container image, however each repository can have multiple versions (tags).

  1. Build and push a new job array container image.
~/environment/bin/build_container.sh stress-ng-array

You just defined, built and pushed the new stress-ng-array container in three basic steps.

Let’s take a closer look at how the new array container works.

A script called /mktests.sh is generated inside the running container with the following contents:

rm $FILE 2>/dev/null
for II in `stress-ng --cpu-method which 2>&1`
    # Discard the first 5 words.
    if [ $COUNT -gt  5 ]; then 
        echo "--cpu 1 -t 120s --metrics --cpu-method $II" >> $FILE
    COUNT=`expr $COUNT + 1`

When called by docker-entrypoint.sh that script creates a file of different tests called /stress-tests.txt inside the running container with contents similar to the following:

--cpu 1 -t 120s --metrics --cpu-method ackermann
--cpu 1 -t 120s --metrics --cpu-method bitops
--cpu 1 -t 120s --metrics --cpu-method callfunc
--cpu 1 -t 120s --metrics --cpu-method cdouble
--cpu 1 -t 120s --metrics --cpu-method cfloat

Each line of this file contains a different test that can be passed to the stress-ng program via the STRESS_ARGS environment variable. Each member task of the array job will select a different line of this file corresponding to the value of its array index variable plus one, i.e. $((AWS_BATCH_JOB_ARRAY_INDEX + 1)) [since the array index starts a zero and file line numbers start at one].

STRESS_ARGS=`sed -n $((AWS_BATCH_JOB_ARRAY_INDEX + 1))p /stress-tests.txt

Create a job definition for an array job

Execute the following commands to create and register a jobDefinition for an array job.

ARRAY_REPO=$(aws ecr describe-repositories --repository-names stress-ng-array --output text --query 'repositories[0].[repositoryUri]')
cat > stress-ng-array-job-definition.json << EOF
    "jobDefinitionName": "stress-ng-array-job-definition",
    "type": "container",
    "containerProperties": {
        "image": "${ARRAY_REPO}",
        "vcpus": 1,
        "memory": 1024
    "retryStrategy": { 
        "attempts": 2
aws batch register-job-definition --cli-input-json file://stress-ng-array-job-definition.json

Submit an array job

Execute the following commands to (a) create a file of job options that references the previously registered jobDefinition and provides additional parameters such as the jobName, array size and destination jobQueue; and then (b) execute the job by passing this option file on the command line.

cat <<EOF > ./stress-ng-array-job.json
  "jobName": "stress-ng-array",
  "jobQueue": "stress-ng-queue",
  "arrayProperties": {
    "size": 8
  "jobDefinition": "stress-ng-array-job-definition"
aws batch submit-job --cli-input-json file://stress-ng-array-job.json

You can observe the status changes and execution of your job at the AWS Batch dashboard.

Note that when you click on an individual array job and view its details you will see multiple entries for each job index which correspond to the individual member tasks of the job array. AWS Batch You can view the individual CloudWatch log streams for each member task. AWS Batch

Submit an array job using command-line options.

Alternatively you can provide all of the parameters for a job on the command line.

aws batch submit-job --job-name job-array --job-queue stress-ng-queue --job-definition stress-ng-array-job-definition --array-properties size=6 

It is often convenient to use environment variables to parameterise command lines.

#### Edit these environment variables.
export JOB_NAME=job-array-5
export JOB_QUEUE=stress-ng-queue
export JOB_DEFINITION=stress-ng-array-job-definition
aws batch submit-job --job-name ${JOB_NAME} --job-queue ${JOB_QUEUE} --job-definition ${JOB_DEFINITION} --array-properties size=${JOB_ARRAY_SIZE} 

To learn more about job arrays, see Tutorial: Using the Array Job Index to Control Job Differentiation.